Rumkale Gaziantep Castle, Birecik, Şanlıurfa, Turkey 

Rumkale was a powerful fortress on the river Euphrates, 50 km west of Şanlıurfa.

Its strategic location was already known to the Assyrians, although the present structure is largely Hellenistic and Roman in origin. The site was occupied by various Byzantine and Armenian warlords during the Middle Ages. During the 12th c, it also became the seat of an Armenian bishop. In 1179, a synod took place in Rumkale, attempting a compromise between the Greeks and the Armenians. From 1203 to 1293, it served as the residence of the Catholicos of the Armenian Church. In 1293 it was captured by the Mamluks of Egypt following a protracted siege who then named it Qal’at al-Muslimin.

Epic Turkey Culture & Adventure Route © Monika Newbound

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