Konark Sun Temple, Odisha, India
The massive Sun Temple was constructed in the mid-13th century, probably by Odishan king Narashimhadev I to celebrate his military victory over the Muslims, and was in use for maybe only three centuries. In the late 16th century the 40m-high sikhara (spire) partially collapsed: speculation about causes ranges from marauding Mughals removing the copper over the cupola to a ransacking Kalapahad displacing the Dadhinauti (arch stone), to simple wear and tear from recurring cyclones – the truth was apparently lost with Konark’s receding shoreline.
The entire temple was conceived as the cosmic chariot of the sun god Surya. Seven mighty prancing horses (representing the days of the week) rear at the strain of moving this stone leviathan on 24 stone cartwheels (representing the hours of the day) that stand around the base. The temple was positioned so that dawn light would illuminate the deul (temple sanctuary) interior and the presiding deity, which may have been moved to Jagannath Mandir in Puri in the 17th century – the interior of the temple was filled in with stone in 1903 on the orders of Sir James Austin Bourdillon, the Lieutenant Governor of Bengal.
The gajasimha (main entrance) is guarded by two stone lions crushing elephants and leads to the intricately carved nritya mandapa (dancing hall). Steps, flanked by straining horses, rise to the still-standing jagamohan (assembly hall). Behind is the spireless deul, with its three impressive chlorite images of Surya aligned to catch the sun at dawn, noon and sunset.
The base and walls present a chronicle in stone of Kalinga life; you’ll see women cooking and men hunting. Many are in the erotic style for which Konark is famous and include entwined couples as well as solitary exhibitionists.
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